Negotiation Analysis: The Science and Art of Collaborative Decision-Making

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This masterly book substantially extends Howard Raiffa’s earlier classic, The Art and Science of Negotiation. It does so by incorporating three additional supporting strands of inquiry:

  • Individual decision analysis
  • Judgmental decision making
  • Game theory


Each strand is introduced and used in analyzing negotiations.

Negotiation Analysis starts by considering how analytically minded parties can generate joint gains and distribute them equitably by negotiating with full, open, truthful exchanges. The book then examines models that disengage step by step from that ideal. It also shows how a neutral outsider (intervenor) can help all negotiators by providing joint, neutral analysis of their problem.

Broadly relevant and applicable to a wide range of disputes
Although analytical in its approach — building from simple hypothetical examples — the book can be understood by those with only a high school background in mathematics. It therefore will have a broad relevance for both the theory and practice of negotiation analysis as it is applied to disputes that range from those between family members, business partners, and business competitors, to those involving labor and management, environmentalists and developers, and nations.



Part I. Fundamentals

  1. Decision Perspectives
    On four approaches to decision making
  2. Decision Analysis
    On how individuals should and could decide
  3. Behavioral Decision Theory
    On the psychology of decisions; on how real people do decide
  4. Game Theory
    On how rational beings should decide separately in interactive situations
  5. Negotiation Analysis
    On how you should and could collaborate with others


Part II. Two-Party Distributive (Win-Lose) Negotiations

  • Elmtree House
    On setting the stage for adversarial bargaining
  • Distributive Negotiations: The Basic Problem
    On the essence of noncooperative, win-lose negotiations
  • Introducing Complexities: Uncertainty
    On deciding to settle out of court and other problems of choice under uncertainty
  • Introducing Complexities: Time
    On entrapments and downward escalation; on real and virtual strikes
  • Auctions and Bids
    On comparing different auction and competitive bidding procedures
  • Part III. Two-Party Integrative (Win-Win) Negotiations

  • Template Design
    On brainstorming alone and together; on deciding what must be decided
  • Template Evaluation
    On deciding what you need and want
  • Template Analysis (I)
    On finding a joint compromise for a special simple case
  • Template Analysis (II)
    On finding a joint compromise for the general case
  • Behavioral Realities
    On learning how people do negotiate in the laboratory and the real world
  • Noncooperative Others
    On how to tackle noncooperative adversaries
  • Part IV. External Help

  • Mostly Facilitation and Mediation
    On helping with people problems
  • Arbitration: Conventional and Nonconventional
    On how a neutral joint analyst might help
  • What Is Fair?
    On principles for deciding joint outcomes
  • Parallel Negotiations
    On negotiating without Negotiating
  • Part V. Many Parties

  • Group Decisions
    On organizing and managing groups
  • Consensus
    On how to achieve a shared agreement for all
  • Coalitions
    On the dynamics of splitting and joining subgroups
  • Voting
    On anomalies of collective action based on voting schemes
  • Pluralistic Parties
    On dealing with parties fractured by internal conflict
  • Multiparty Interventions
    On the role of external helpers in multiparty negotiations
  • Social Dilemmas
    On the conflict between self-interest and group interest
  • References
    Note on Sources
    Howard Raiffa is Frank Plumpton Ramsey Professor of Managerial Economics Emeritus, Harvard Business School and Kennedy School of Government, and Director Emeritus of the Negotiation Roundtable. John Richardson is a Lecturer and Associate at the Program on Negotiation. David Metcalfe is an Analyst at Forrester Research, London, England.

    Published by the Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.

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