Negotiation Strategies for Mutual Gain



This volume is a collection of essays which present key concepts and strategies intended to promote effective negotiation and mutually beneficial dispute resolution. This book is for people in all fields who need to deal with conflict and resolve issues on a continual basis. The book assumes that conflicts, managed well, can provide the impetus for growth, constructive change, and mutual benefits. Ideas for settling disputes, improving communications, and changing the nature of certain debates are covered in this book.

This work is divided into eleven essays in three parts, with an introduction by the editor. This text was published in cooperation with the Harvard Program on Negotiation, and is an outgrowth of a semester-length course in negotiation taught under the auspices of the Program.



Focuses on outlining frameworks for effective negotiation. Roger Fisher, William Ury and Bruce Patton analyze negotiating power in terms of the parties’ BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement). Sources of negotiating power include understanding the opposing parties’ interests, forging a good working relationship with other parties to negotiation, suggesting elegant options, invoking external standards of legitimacy, and making commitments. Howard Raiffa explores the uses of third party neutral analysts to produce more efficient negotiated outcomes. Neutral analysts are particularly helpful in integrative bargaining situations. Using case studies he describes specific methods by which neutral analysts can facilitate better settlements. David Straus describes facilitated collaborative problem solving and process management. He stresses the importance of developing a negotiation process in the early stages of negotiation, rather than moving to consider solutions prematurely.



The authors discuss the application of negotiation frameworks to actual organizations. Frank Sander describes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the court system. Lawrence Susskind describes his own consensus-building approach to resolving public disputes. Although negotiation processes currently serve to supplement existing public decision-making procedures, increased use of negotiation has the potential to transform those public procedures, for the better. Robert McKersie and Charles Heckscher each analyze the habits and beliefs which make labor relations so contentious. They suggest changes which will improve the potential for mutual gains decision making in employment relations. Mary Rowe discusses the importance of developing flexible dispute resolution processes, which offer both complainants and complaint handlers’ options regarding how an issue will be resolved. Rowe describes some of the options which characterize an effective dispute resolution system.



The author discusses the effects of individual’s characteristics on the process of negotiation. Jeffery Rubin describes conflict from a psychological perspective. He describes the psychological tendencies which can lead to conflict escalation or stalemate, and suggests techniques to facilitate de-escalation. Deborah Kolb investigates the effect of gender on negotiation. Gerald Williams assesses the effectiveness of cooperative and aggressive negotiation styles.

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Soft copy vs. hard copy

You may order this role simulation in either soft copy (electronic) or hard copy (paper) format. If you select the soft copy option, you will receive an e-mail with a URL (website address) from which you may download an electronic file in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. You will have one week to download your materials from when you receive the email. You are then only authorized to use, print, or share the materials as many times as the number of copies you purchase. The TNRC charges for use of this simulation on a per-participant basis. Therefore, you must purchase a separate copy of this simulation for each person who will be participating, regardless of the number of roles in the simulation. You will only receive a link to one electronic file, which includes all general instructions, confidential instructions, and any teaching notes for the simulation. You should separate out the instructions before distributing to participants.

If you select the hard copy option, you will receive paper copies of this role simulation via the shipping method you select.

For additional information about the soft copy option, please visit our FAQ section, or contact the PON Teaching Negotiation Resource Center at or 800-258-4406 (within the U.S.) or 301-528-2676 (outside the U.S.).

Please note: At the present time, Teaching Negotiation Resource Center soft copies are compatible with the following versions of the Adobe Acrobat Reader: English, German, French, Spanish, Swedish, Portuguese, Japanese, and Korean. If you have a different version of the Acrobat Reader, you may wish to download one of these at, or contact the PON Teaching Negotiation Resource Center at, 800-258-4406 (within the U.S.), or 301-528-2676 (outside the U.S.) for further assistance. This restriction does not apply to the freely available Teacher’s Package Review Copies.

Ordering a single copy for review

If you wish to review the materials for a particular role simulation to decide whether you’d like to use it, a PDF, or soft copy, version of the Teacher’s Package for the simulation is available as a free download from the description page of most role simulations and case studies. All Teacher’s Packages include copies of all participant materials. In addition, some Teacher’s Packages (but not all) include additional teaching materials such as teaching notes or overhead masters.

Ordering copies for multiple participants

To order multiple copies of a role simulation for use in a course or workshop, simply enter the total number of participants in the box next to “Quantity.” There is no need to calculate how many of each role is required.

If you are ordering hard copies, the Teaching Negotiation Resource Center will calculate the appropriate numbers of each role to provide, based on the total number of participants. For example, if you wish to order a 2-party role simulation for use with a class of 30 students, you would enter “30” in the box next to “Quantity.” You then would receive 15 copies of one role and 15 copies of the other role, for use with your 30 participants. As another example, if you ordered 30 participant copies of a 6-party role simulation, you would receive 5 copies of each role.

In the event that the number of participant copies you order is not evenly divisible by the number of roles in the simulation, you will receive extra copies of one or more roles. Participants receiving the extra roles may partner with other participants playing the same role, thus negotiating as a team. So, for instance, if you ordered 31 copies of a 2-party role simulation, you would receive 15 copies of the first role and 16 copies of the second role. One of the participants playing the second role would partner with another participant playing that same role, and the two would negotiate as a team.