Denise MadiganThree-party scoreable negotiation among three non-profit social service providers over whether to apply for funding in a consortium of two or three; variation of Three-Party Coalition Exercise
Allied, Benevolent, and Caring Services are three nonprofit social service providers competing for state social service funding. The state funding agency has decided to increase its annual budget but will provide additional funds only to a consortium of two or more providers. Each provider must decide whether to cooperate with the other providers in order to pursue state funds, and if so, how these funds should be divided among the cooperating providers.
NOTE: The underlying mathematical structure of this exercise is similar to that of the exercises The Parking Facility Venture, Rushing River Cleanup and the Three-Party Coalition Exercise.
This game is designed for three participants, one per role. Game instructions require 5 minutes to read; additional preparation time is desirable. Negotiations require 15 to 20 minutes; more time is useful. A second version of the case includes a mediator as a fourth party.
Before or after the negotiation, participants should be asked to read “Coalition Analysis,” Chapter 17 in The Art and Science of Negotiation by Howard Raiffa (Harvard University Press, 1982). The mathematical structure of the exercise is thoroughly and clearly discussed there.
- The dynamics of coalition formation in an unstable situation are illustrated. When many groups of three are playing, outcomes can be explored illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of different negotiating tactics.
- The power of seemingly “weak” players can be enhanced through the creation of blocking coalitions.
- Howard Raiffa’s concept of “offers that cannot readily be refused” is illustrated in this game.
For all parties:
- General Instructions
- All of the above
BATNA; Closure; Coalitions; Competition v. Cooperation; Creativity; Currently perceived choice analysis; Decision analysis; Game theory; Options, generating; Quantitative analysis; Time constraints
Social Services Attributes
- Time required:
- 30minutes – 1 hour
- Number of participants:
- Teams involved:
- Agent present:
- Neutral third party present:
- Teaching notes available:
Soft copy vs. hard copy
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Ordering a single copy for review
If you wish to review the materials for a particular role simulation to decide whether you’d like to use it, then you should order a single Teacher’s Package for that role simulation. A PDF, or soft copy, version of the Teacher’s Package is also available as a free download from the description page of most role simulations and case studies. There is no need to order participant materials as well as a Teacher’s Package, as all Teacher’s Packages include copies of all participant materials. In addition, some Teacher’s Packages (but not all) include additional teaching materials such as teaching notes or overhead masters. Please note that the materials in Teacher’s Packages are for the instructor’s review and reference only, and may not be duplicated for use with participants.
Ordering copies for multiple participants
If you wish to order multiple copies of a role simulation for use in a course or workshop, simply enter the total number of participants in the box next to “Participant Copies.” There is no need to calculate how many of each role is required; the Teaching Negotiation Resource Center will calculate the appropriate numbers of each role to provide, based on the total number of participants. For example, if you wish to order a 2-party role simulation for use with a class of 30 students, you would enter “30” in the box next to “Participant Copies.” You then would receive 15 copies of one role and 15 copies of the other role, for use with your 30 participants. As another example, if you ordered 30 participant copies of a 6-party role simulation, you would receive 5 copies of each role.
In the event that the number of participant copies you order is not evenly divisible by the number of roles in the simulation, you will receive extra copies of one or more roles. Participants receiving the extra roles may partner with other participants playing the same role, thus negotiating as a team. So, for instance, if you ordered 31 copies of a 2-party role simulation, you would receive 15 copies of the first role and 16 copies of the second role. One of the participants playing the second role would partner with another participant playing that same role, and the two would negotiate as a team.