International Relations Role-Play:

One Village, Six People Workable Peace: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide in Post-Colonial Africa


Chris Jost, under the direction of David Fairman

Six-party negotiation among Hutu and Tutsi villagers regarding competing land claims and local authority issues in the wake of the Rwandan genocide


Please note: you must order a copy (a.k.a. license/usage fee) for every person participating in the simulation in your course. This simulation has multiple roles, so you will be unable to complete your purchase without meeting the minimum quantity requirement of copies per role.

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PON Teaching Negotiation Resource Center

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Soft copy vs. hard copy

You may order this role simulation in either soft copy (electronic) or hard copy (paper) format. If you select the soft copy option, you will receive an e-mail with a URL (website address) from which you may download an electronic file in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. You will have one week to download your materials from when you receive the email. You are then only authorized to use, print, or share the materials as many times as the number of copies you purchase. The TNRC charges for use of this simulation on a per-participant basis. Therefore, you must purchase a separate copy of this simulation for each person who will be participating, regardless of the number of roles in the simulation. You will only receive a link to one electronic file, which includes all general instructions, confidential instructions, and any teaching notes for the simulation. You should separate out the instructions before distributing to participants.

If you select the hard copy option, you will receive paper copies of this role simulation via the shipping method you select.

For additional information about the soft copy option, please visit our FAQ section, or contact the PON Teaching Negotiation Resource Center at or 800-258-4406 (within the U.S.) or 301-528-2676 (outside the U.S.).

Please note: At the present time, Teaching Negotiation Resource Center soft copies are compatible with the following versions of the Adobe Acrobat Reader: English, German, French, Spanish, Swedish, Portuguese, Japanese, and Korean. If you have a different version of the Acrobat Reader, you may wish to download one of these at, or contact the PON Teaching Negotiation Resource Center at, 800-258-4406 (within the U.S.), or 301-528-2676 (outside the U.S.) for further assistance. This restriction does not apply to the freely available Teacher’s Package Review Copies.

Ordering a single copy for review

If you wish to review the materials for a particular role simulation to decide whether you’d like to use it, a PDF, or soft copy, version of the Teacher’s Package for the simulation is available as a free download from the description page of most role simulations and case studies. All Teacher’s Packages include copies of all participant materials. In addition, some Teacher’s Packages (but not all) include additional teaching materials such as teaching notes or overhead masters.

Ordering copies for multiple participants

To order multiple copies of a role simulation for use in a course or workshop, simply enter the total number of participants in the box next to “Quantity.” There is no need to calculate how many of each role is required.

If you are ordering hard copies, the Teaching Negotiation Resource Center will calculate the appropriate numbers of each role to provide, based on the total number of participants. For example, if you wish to order a 2-party role simulation for use with a class of 30 students, you would enter “30” in the box next to “Quantity.” You then would receive 15 copies of one role and 15 copies of the other role, for use with your 30 participants. As another example, if you ordered 30 participant copies of a 6-party role simulation, you would receive 5 copies of each role.

In the event that the number of participant copies you order is not evenly divisible by the number of roles in the simulation, you will receive extra copies of one or more roles. Participants receiving the extra roles may partner with other participants playing the same role, thus negotiating as a team. So, for instance, if you ordered 31 copies of a 2-party role simulation, you would receive 15 copies of the first role and 16 copies of the second role. One of the participants playing the second role would partner with another participant playing that same role, and the two would negotiate as a team.

Bulk Pricing Discount

For bulk orders, we offer the following pricing discounts. Please note that these only apply to bulk orders of the same simulation.

  • Between 100-250 copies – 10% discount
  • Between 251-500 copies – 25% discount
  • More than 500 copies – 50% discount
Log In or Register to download the free Teacher's Package Sample.


In 1990, Tutsi exiles in Uganda formed the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), a political and military organization. After three years of war, they came within 30 km of invading Kigali, the Rwandan capital. The Rwandan president was forced to sign a power-sharing peace agreement with the RPF. However, Hutu elites within the government had been training civilians, militias, and army units to massacre the Tutsis. On April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana was assassinated and the genocide began.

For three months, the citizens of Rwanda were slaughtered on such a massive scale that five times more people were killed per day than in any other twentieth century genocide. Approximately 830,000 people were killed, of which 800,000 were members of the Tutsi ethnic minority, and the remainder members of the Hutu majority. Eleven percent of Rwanda's population died. Two million of Rwanda's seven million people fled the country as refugees.

In 1996, most of the Rwandan people returned to their homes and livelihoods. The ethnic conflict that had exploded into genocide two years before still existed, however, and new conflicts had arisen out of the genocide.

This negotiation is set in a small village in Gisenyi Province of northern Rwanda, just after the return of a massive wave of refugees. The format is a village meeting with six participants: Bernadette (a 44-year old Tutsi woman whose husband and son were killed by the Hutus); Frederic (a 22-year old Tutsi refugee whose parents fled to Uganda from Gisenyi 30 years ago); Ancille (a 45-year old Hutu woman whose daughter had married Bernadette's son); Joseph (a 25-year old Hutu man, recently appointed prefect); Charles (a 60-year old Hutu man and the locally elected bougmestre who challenges Joseph's authority); and Perpetune (a 29-year old Hutu woman whose land abust the land claimed by Bernadette, Ancille, and Frederic). The villagers will seek consensus regarding competing land claims and local authority issues.

NOTE: One Village, Six People is a role simulation from the Workable Peace Curriculum Series unit on Ethnic Conflict and Genocide in Post-Colonial Africa.


Key learning points include:

  • How intergroup conflicts begin when individuals identify strongly with a particular group as a way to meet their physical and psychological needs, and come to believe that this "identity group" is being threatened by members of other groups;
  • How intergroup conflicts escalate when group members and leaders decide to use threats or acts of violence to meet the needs of their own group; and
  • How members of groups in conflict can take steps toward a workable peace by negotiating truces, recognizing each others' right to meet basic needs, and making rules for settling their conflicts and meeting their needs without violence.


Teacher's Pack includes:

  • History and General Instructions
  • Confidential instructions for Perpetune, Frederic, Charles, Joseph, Ancille  and Bernadette
  • Observation/ Assessment Instructions
  • Teaching Note
  • Master List of Player Goals
  • Teaching Overheads
  • Framework for a Workable Peace


If you would like additional information about the Workable Peace framework and teaching materials, including information about teacher training and support, please contact Workable Peace Co-Directors David Fairman or Stacie Smith at:

The Consensus Building Institute, Inc. 238 Main Street, Suite 400 Cambridge, MA 02142 Tel: 617-492-1414 Fax: 616-492-1919 web: Email:

One Village, Six People Attributes

Time required: 3-5 hours
Number of participants: 6
Teams involved: No
Agent present: None
Neutral third party present: None
Scoreable: No
Teaching notes available: Yes