Binder Kadeer

SCENARIO:

An employee of the company has filed a complaint with the company's affirmative action office, charging his manager with discrimination. Dealing with diversity within the company is also an issue. The case is referred to an HR representative who consults with the parties.

This exercise is one of six modules in the "Collaborative Negotiation for Human Resource Professionals" curriculum package. For details, please see Collaborative Negotiation for Human Resource Professionals under "Curricula."

Chiptech

SCENARIO:
Chiptech, a large company that markets a variety of electronic products for business and personal use, is in the midst of its annual budget process. Terry Austin, Chiptech's head of Human Resources, has approached CFO Chris Brown about a budget increase that is far above the limit set in a memo by Brown. Austin claims that the increase is necessary to implement the HR reorganization plan that was recently approved by the president of the company. This is their meeting.

NOTE: This simulation is based on Multimode by Lawrence Susskind.

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • The degree to which issues other than the percentage increase or cut should come into play is a useful focus for a discussion of good outcomes.
  • Both of the parties want the best for Chiptech, but they have different perspectives on how to do this. Austin wants to improve the HR element, and Brown wants to improve the financial element. This can lead to interesting discussion. Can each party understand where the other is coming from? Does this help them come to a solution, or just keep things civil?
  • CFO Chris Brown has the final say on Austin's budget proposal. How does this color the negotiation?

 

Teacher's Package Includes:

  • One copy of each set of confidential instructions
  • No teaching note currently available. For a similar role-play with a teaching note please see Multimode

Dirty Laundry

SCENARIO:

Marty Kasenberg, a regular customer of Yee Chin Cleaners brought several customized shirts to Yee to be laundered. Upon return to pick up the laundry, it was found the shirts had been destroyed. Marty is now seeking repayment of all the shirts that was left. Yee has apologized, and intends to make reimbursement. However, the two parties maintain differing views on the value of the shirts and reasonable compensation.

 

MECHANICS:

The arrangement of the mediation is left up to the mediator. The mediator may caucus, hold a joint session or both. The entire exercise could run from 30-60 minutes. Observations by two or more parties can be very useful for review purposes. Videotaping participants can also enhance follow-up discussions. " A Brief Outline of the Mediation Process", is useful background reading for the mediator. "An Actual Small Claims Mediated Agreement," is useful as follow-up reading for all parties, especially if mediators have been asked to draft any agreement reached. (Hand this out after the mediators have finished their own try at drafting.)

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • This case is useful as a training tool for small claims mediators. It provides an opportunity for the mediator to determine what meeting design is most beneficial for gathering information and discovering bottom lines.
  • Participants should be able to recognize creative options after assessing the various interests.
  • The importance of letting parties vent their anger stimulates focus on the role of emotions in mediation. What effect might this have on attaining an agreement? What role does it play in trying to rebuild a relationship?
  • Detailed review of precise language, ordering of issues, use of caucuses, and framing of issues can be enormously rewarding. Close observation and/or videotaping is invaluable, although student-student review is useful.
  • Small claims mediation skills can be thoroughly tested when the mediator attempts to deal with the anger, the differing views in value, and legitimacy.

 

TEACHING MATERIALS:

Role Specific:

Confidential Instructions for:

  • Marty Kasenberg
  • Lou Yee Chin
  • Mediator

 

Teacher's Package:

  • All of the Above

 

THEMES:

BATNA; Communication; Credibility; Drafting; Emotions; Fairness; Interpersonal skills; Mediation; Meeting design; Nonverbal communication; Objective criteria; Options, generating; Partisan perceptions; Precedents; Public opinion; Reality testing; Relationship; Reservation price; Separating the people from the problem
MORE PRODUCTS BY PAT AARON:

Rosenberg v. Lincoln Landscaping
Smithfield v. Rudfurd's Home Repairs

Drug Testing in the Workplace

SCENARIO:

A truck driver in the highly competitive, deregulated trucking industry has tested positive for drug use in a random, workplace drug test. The driver has not actually taken any drugs, but tested positive because of passive exposure to marijuana. The personnel director, the truck driver, and a representative from the Employee Assistance Program Center are meeting to negotiate appropriate action. In the unionized version, a teamster business agent is also present.

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • Substantively, this exercise simulates the complex emotions that occur when someone's job is on the line. Work can be done with the guilt and anger that results.
  • There are also many context-lessons on doing testing — especially around mutual gains alternatives such as testing for impairment (reflex tests, etc.) rather than testing for drugs. Some employers have experimented along these lines to good effect. There are related issues around the potential benefits of such tests (where they are not legally mandated) in comparison to the costs.
  • The exercise provides opportunities for individuals to reflect the way in which we become locked in to unconstructive policies or career threatening stances — as well as prompting exploration of alternatives.
  • A key process lesson concerns the capacity of the EAP person to serve as a mediator, which varies with the unionized and non-union scenarios. In the unionized version, the EAP gets group together with the employer and mediation is more difficult.

Hiring a Newtonian

SCENARIO:

This is a negotiation between a recently hired computer programmer and a Human Resources Director regarding the new employee's salary, benefits, and start date. The computer programmer, a recent immigrant from "Newtonia," has certain requirements that cannot be disclosed for fear of invoking bad luck. The Newtonian also has cultural expectations of how the Human Resources Director should behave in order to transact business comfortably. The Human Resources Director simply has the task of hiring this candidate who has been interviewed and recommended for hire. There is a given salary range, an established list of benefits, and regular start dates from which the Human Resources Director can operate.

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • This exercise highlights the cultural elements of negotiation and helps sensitize participants to potential cultural differences.
  • This exercise also highlights the potential discrepancy between intent (by one party) and impact (on another party).

 

TEACHER'S PACK INCLUDES:

  • Participant materials and teaching note.

MedLee

SCENARIO:

MedDevice, a U.S.-based Fortune 500 company that manufactures high technology medical equipment, and Lee Medical Supply, a small Thailand-based company that distributes medical equipment in Southeast Asia, seek to conclude a joint venture. The venture, to be named MedLee, Ltd., will take the form of a Bangkok sales office that distributes MedDevice brand medical equipment. The CEOs have met and signed a Memorandum of Understanding. They have now instructed their subordinates (Pat Armstrong, the Director of International Strategic Market Research at MedDevice, and T.S. Lee, the Vice President and son of the owner of Lee Medical Supply) to conduct preliminary negotiations on four issues they consider central to the joint venture: decision making, staffing, profit distribution, and a conflict resolution mechanism. MedDevice and Lee Medical Supply differ greatly in their corporate cultures, which are shaped by their national cultures and the demands of their respective industries. MedDevice, a publicly traded company in a highly regulated industry, is rule-oriented, efficient, structured, data driven, and merit-based. Lee Medical Supply, a family-owned and operated company, places a high value on relationships and family loyalty, and favors informal consensus arrangements over rules. The respective negotiators must develop a way for companies with such divergent cultures to work together.

 

SUBJECTS:

Joint ventures; cross-cultural negotiations; agent-principal tensions

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • Handling the challenges involved in preparing for and conducting cross-cultural negotiations.
  • Recognizing and dealing with divergent assumptions and perspectives.
  • Bridging cultural differences and communicating effectively across cultures.
  • Handling agent-principal tensions.

 

Minimum Participants: 2

Preparation Time: 30 min. – 1 hour

Negotiation Time: 90 min. – 2 hours

Debriefing Time: 30 min. – 1 hour

 

Teacher’s Package (30 pages total) includes:

  • Participant materials
  • Teaching Note

 

ENHANCED VERSION AVAILABLE:

A digitally enhanced version of this simulation is available through the iDecisionGames platform and includes the following features:

  • An Instructor’s Guide summarizing the negotiation concepts covered in the simulation, a quick review of simulation logistics, and a ready-to-use set of debriefing slides;
  • Highlights from background readings that will help both students and instructors gain a better understanding of negotiation concepts and methods covered in the simulation;
  • Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires instructors can use gauge each student’s grasp of the core concepts before and after participating in the simulation;
  • PowerPoint slides that introduce key concepts before the simulation and highlight lessons for debriefing;
  • Real time, interactive, data analytics provided via the iDecisionGames platform.

To order the MedLee Enhanced Package click here.

Oil Pricing Exercise

SCENARIO:

Alba and Batia are two unfriendly oil producing nations that sell a significant amount of their production to nearby Capita. Anti-dumping agreements and Capita's alternate supply options limit Alba and Batia to prices per barrel of $10, $20, and $30. Each country's monthly profit can vary from $2 to $18 million per month, depending on the two country's relative prices and consequent Pricing Board of Alba or Batia. They are instructed that maximizing their own country's profits is their sole objective.

 

MECHANICS:

This is a group exercise, with several people on each country's Oil Pricing Board. It is possible to have as few as three or as many as ten members of each Board. The exercise is run in 8 or more rounds, corresponding to months, and takes 2 1/4 to 3 1/2 hours to run and review.

 

TEACHING MATERIALS:

For all parties:

  • General Instructions and Score Sheets
  • Monthly Price Report Message Forms

 

Teacher's Package

  • All of the above
  • Teaching Note (English version only; non-English versions do not include teaching note)

 

PROCESS THEMES:

Assumptions; Commitment; Communication; Competition v. Cooperation; Compliance; Constituents; Credibility; Decision analysis; Education, as a means; Ethics; Game theory; Group process; Group-think; Joint gains; Managing uncertainty; Meaning of "success"; Message analysis; Misrepresentation; Recurring negotiations; Risk aversion; Risk perception; Trust

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

This is a so-called "social trap" exercise, in which long-term maximization requires unenforced mutual trust where significant short-term gains are possible by breaking that trust. In most rounds, communication must be implicit, and is hence highly ambiguous and subject to misinterpretation, usually by the projection of negative and adversarial intentions that don't actually exist. At certain points, the parties are given the opportunity to communicate explicitly, and may choose to reach pricing agreements or not (and subsequently, to honor those agreements or not).

The exercise highlights the frequency with which we make imprecise and inadequately supported assumptions, suggesting the importance of making and keeping assumptions explicit and testing them periodically.

The danger of self-fulfilling assumptions is also illustrated. Parties can turn cautious competitors into the cutthroat adversaries they fear by proceeding with pre-emptive ruthlessness.

The difference between reacting to the other side's moves (or one's perception of what those moves mean or will be), and acting purposefully to influence the other side to (re)act constructively, is easily illustrated by comparing the experience of different teams. The monetary variation tends to be dramatic between cooperative and competitive games, and analysis usually suggests that to establish the former, some teams have to take a risk. Players face the tension between seeking high short-term gains and low short-term risk inherent in a competitive strategy, and lower but more stable long-term gains inherent in a cooperative strategy.

The exercise presents rich opportunities to observe, analyze, and critique intra-group dynamics and decision making.

Negotiation Pedagogy Video Series, Part III
This unscripted video, available separately, shows PON faculty member Sheila Heen running and debriefing the "Oil Pricing" exercise, interspersed with excerpts from a post-workshop interview with the instructor.
Order the video here.

Parker-Gibson

NEW – ALL-IN-ONE CURRICULUM PACKAGE 

If you are new to teaching negotiation or are looking to go in-depth on the fundamental negotiation concepts, the Parker-Gibson All-In-One Curriculum Package will provide you with everything you need to teach negotiation.

The All-In-One Curriculum Package makes it easy to teach negotiation, track learning outcomes, and includes materials for the instructor as well as for students.

Materials include: 

  • Instructor’s Guide – Guide for instructors on negotiation concepts, simulation logistics, and debriefing simulation participants.
  • Instructor Background Reading List – List of background readings for instructors to complete before using the simulation to gain a better understanding of the negotiation concepts.
  • Student Background Reading List – List of background readings for students to complete before the simulation to gain understanding of the negotiation concepts.
  • Confidential Role Instructions – Confidential role-specific materials for participants in the exercise.
  • Pre-Negotiation Surveys – After completing the background reading and/or presentation of the negotiation concepts, participants complete the online Pre-Negotiation Survey to benchmark their understanding of the key learning points the game is intended to teach.
  • Agreement Outcome Form – Participants reporting the results of any agreements reached in the simulation.
  • Post-Negotiation Survey – After finishing the simulation, but before the debrief, participants fill out the Post-Negotiation Survey so Instructors can gauge participants understanding of the issues and concepts.
  • Class PowerPoint Presentation – The first part of the PowerPoint slide deck is for the instructor to use to introduce negotiation concepts, how to participate in a negotiation simulation, and Parker-Gibson. The second part is for the instructor to use in debriefing the simulation with participants.
  • Feedback Survey – At the conclusion of the exercise, participants can give feedback on the process and outcomes.

The Parker-Gibson All-In-One Curriculum Package requires a minimum of 90 minutes of class time, but is best run in a two and half or three-hour class. To order this package, you must purchase a minimum of ten copies. A separate copy must be purchased for every participant in the exercise. The materials are all single use and must be re-purchased for subsequent uses.

SCENARIO:

The Parkers and the Gibsons own homes on adjacent plots of land. The homes are separated by a 1/2 lot the Parkers purchased years ago in hopes of building a tennis court, which they never got around to. The Parkers are now moving out of state and are interested in selling the half lot, as the buyer of their home is not interested in it. The Parkers have approached the Gibsons (who have interest in the lot for home improvements they have planned) about purchasing the lot. Neither party knows much about the other’s interests. The Parkers and Gibsons are meeting to explore whether a mutually beneficial transaction is possible.

NOTE: This exercise is a modified and improved version of a former exercise titled Appleton v. Baker (Appleton v. Baker is still available, upon request). This exercise is also analytically similar to the exercises The Book Contract (with a different setting) and Bradford Development (without the linkage payment).

 

MECHANICS:

The exercise is best run as a one-on-one exercise. Preparation should require 5-10 minutes. Negotiations can take from 10-30 minutes, and review from 30 minutes to 1 1/4 hours.

 

TEACHING MATERIALS:

  • Role specific:
    Confidential Instructions for:

      • Parker
      • Gibson

     

  • Teacher’s package:
    • All of the above
    • Teaching Note (English version only)

 

PROCESS THEMES:

Anchoring; BATNA; Fairness; Information exchange; Interests, dovetailing; Joint gains; Objective criteria; Offers, first; Pareto optimization; Quantitative analysis; Risk aversion; Trust

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

When several pairs negotiate this game at the same time, the resulting sale prices vary dramatically. Participants can then discuss how and why different negotiation strategies led to different outcomes.

Concepts of “fair prices” often surface in post-negotiation discussions. If participants do not take a “principled” approach to the negotiation, one side or the other often feels “taken,” especially when other players with the same role appear to do better.

The advantages and disadvantages of making the first offer can be explored, as well as techniques for doing so.

The advantages and disadvantages of truthfully revealing your BATNA can also be illustrated, especially when several pairs negotiate the exercise.

 

ENHANCED VERSION AVAILABLE:

A digitally enhanced version of this simulation is available through the iDecisionGames platform and includes the following features:

  • An Instructor’s Guide summarizing the negotiation concepts covered in the simulation, a quick review of simulation logistics, and a ready-to-use set of debriefing slides;
  • Highlights from background readings that will help both students and instructors gain a better understanding of negotiation concepts and methods covered in the simulation;
  • Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires instructors can use gauge each student’s grasp of the core concepts before and after participating in the simulation;
  • PowerPoint slides that introduce key concepts before the simulation and highlight lessons for debriefing;
  • Real time, interactive, data analytics provided via the iDecisionGames platform.

To order the Parker-Gibson Enhanced Package click here.

Rosenberg v. Lincoln Landscaping

SCENARIO:

Mr. & Mrs. Rosenberg purchased a home in Brookline. The landscaper of that property, Ronnie Lincoln telephoned the Rosenbergs to see if they wanted to employ his company's services in the same manner as the prior owners. Seemingly, an agreement was made between Mrs. Rosenberg and Mr. Lincoln to continue the landscaping service. After several billings, Lincoln pursued his clients for payment. A discrepancy surrounding the quality of the work and the actual agreement made has arisen between the Rosenbergs and Lincoln. The landscaper believes that he has done his best to make amends. However, Mr. Rosenberg interprets these actions as concessions to his point of view, and thus far has refused to make any payment to Lincoln Landscaping. The matter finally ends up in small claims court.

 

MECHANICS:

This mediation role play takes about 10 – 15 minutes for reading and preparation. It can either be simulated with a mediator as a one-on-one or two-on-one. The actual role play can run from 30 to 45 minutes. Videotaping can be helpful for observation and review.

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • This case is useful for small claims mediators. It shows how a misunderstanding can develop due to lack of information and awareness of local customs. These factors provide an opportunity for mediators to test their information gathering skills.
  • During debriefing, discussions may arise concerning mediator's bias. The mediator can easily adopt the view that advantage has been taken of one of the parties. The intervenor then has the challenge to generate options for a good outcome that is mutually beneficial to both parties.
  • Participants may discuss the value of a written contract versus an oral agreement. The element of trust is illuminated here, as well as the value of re-establishing a good business relationship.

 

TEACHING MATERIALS:

Role Specific:

Confidential Information for:

  • Dr. Julian Rosenberg
  • Ronnie Lincoln
  • Mediator

 

Teacher's Package:

  • All of the above

 

PROCESS THEMES:

Anchoring; Assumptions; Commitment; Cost-benefit analysis; Communication; Credibility; Drafting; Fairness; Information exchange; Interpersonal skills; Legitimacy; Meaning of "success"; Mediation; Meeting design; Message analysis; Misrepresentation; Nonverbal communication; Objective criteria; Options, generating; Personality; Reality testing; Relationship

MORE PRODUCTS BY PAT AARON:

Dirty Laundry
Smithfield v. Rudfurd's Home Repairs

Sally Soprano I

NEW – ALL-IN-ONE CURRICULUM PACKAGE 

If you are new to teaching negotiation or are looking to go in-depth on the fundamental negotiation concepts, the Sally Soprano All-In-One Curriculum Package will provide you with everything you need to teach negotiation.

The All-In-One Curriculum Package makes it easy to teach negotiation, track learning outcomes, and includes materials for the instructor as well as for students.

Materials include: 

  • Instructor’s Guide – Guide for instructors on negotiation concepts, simulation logistics, and debriefing simulation participants.
  • Instructor Background Reading List – List of background readings for instructors to complete before using the simulation to gain a better understanding of the negotiation concepts.
  • Student Background Reading List – List of background readings for students to complete before the simulation to gain understanding of the negotiation concepts.
  • Confidential Role Instructions – Confidential role-specific materials for participants in the exercise.
  • Pre-Negotiation Surveys – After completing the background reading and/or presentation of the negotiation concepts, participants complete the online Pre-Negotiation Survey to benchmark their understanding of the key learning points the game is intended to teach.
  • Agreement Outcome Form – Participants reporting the results of any agreements reached in the simulation.
  • Post-Negotiation Survey – After finishing the simulation, but before the debrief, participants fill out the Post-Negotiation Survey so Instructors can gauge participants understanding of the issues and concepts.
  • Class PowerPoint Presentation – The first part of the PowerPoint slide deck is for the instructor to use to introduce negotiation concepts, how to participate in a negotiation simulation, and Sally Soprano. The second part is for the instructor to use in debriefing the simulation with participants.
  • Feedback Survey – At the conclusion of the exercise, participants can give feedback on the process and outcomes.

The Sally Soprano All-In-One Curriculum Package requires a minimum of 90 minutes of class time, but is best run in a two and half or three-hour class. To order this package, you must purchase a minimum of ten copies. A separate copy must be purchased for every participant in the exercise. The materials are all single use and must be re-purchased for subsequent uses.

SCENARIO

Sally Soprano is a distinguished soprano who is now somewhat past her prime. She has not had a lead role in two years but would like to revive her career. The Lyric Opera has a production scheduled to open in three weeks, but its lead soprano has become unavailable. Lyric’s representative has requested a meeting with Sally’s agent to discuss the possibility of hiring Sally for the production. Neither knows much about the other’s interests or alternatives. There is a wide range of possible outcomes.

NOTE This exercise is a modified version of the exercise Sally Swansong I, developed by Norbert S. Jacker and Mark N. Gordon. Sally Swansong I is still available upon request. The Spanish, Swedish, and Dutch translations are based on the original Sally Swansong exercise. See also Theotis Wiley, a variation of this simulation set in the context of a potential endorsement contract between a basketball player and an athletic shoe company.

TEACHING MATERIALS 

Materials for the standard version include:

  • Confidential Instructions for:
    • Sally Soprano’s Agent
    • Lyric Opera’s Business Manager
  • Post-negotiation handouts:
    • Some possible criteria for establishing salary
    • Some creative options
  • Teacher’s Package includes:
    • All of the above
    • Teaching Note

PROCESS THEMES Anchoring; Attorney/Client relations; Authority; BATNA; Bluffing; Confidentiality; Constituents; Fairness; Information exchange; Interests, dovetailing; Lawyering; Legitimacy; Meaning of “success”; Misrepresentation; Objective criteria; Offers, first; Options, generating; Pareto optimization; Precedents; Risk aversion; Risk perception; Systems of negotiation; Trust

MAJOR LESSONS

This exercise is an excellent vehicle for comparing principled negotiation and positional bargaining.

The knowledge that one’s BATNA is weak often leads people to negotiate much less vigorously than they otherwise would. Is this ever justified? If so, under what conditions? The case affords a good opportunity to point out that any such analyses should be based on a consideration of the parties’ relative BATNAs.

The available data allow a number of more or less equally persuasive arguments about what a “fair” salary would be. This is at a minimum good practice in developing and using objective criteria. Beyond that, the case presents the more difficult challenge of finding an objective basis with which to judge the applicability of alternative objective criteria.

Good negotiators put the distributive issues in this case in perspective and reduce their importance by dovetailing interests with creative options that expand the pie. This case has an enormous potential range of such creative options.

Since the case does have a strong competitive element, there is ample opportunity to explore techniques for indirectly and directly extracting information from the other side. Likewise, techniques of protecting oneself from “giving up” the possibility for gains that were unforeseen can be explored and discussed.

SIMILAR SIMULATIONS

 

ENHANCED VERSION AVAILABLE

A digitally enhanced version of this simulation is available through the iDecisionGames platform and includes the following features:

  • An Instructor’s Guide summarizing the negotiation concepts covered in the simulation, a quick review of simulation logistics, and a ready-to-use set of debriefing slides;
  • Highlights from background readings that will help both students and instructors gain a better understanding of negotiation concepts and methods covered in the simulation;
  • Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires instructors can use gauge each student’s grasp of the core concepts before and after participating in the simulation;
  • PowerPoint slides that introduce key concepts before the simulation and highlight lessons for debriefing;
  • Real time, interactive, data analytics provided via the iDecisionGames platform.

To order the Sally Soprano Enhanced Package click here.

Trademore Personnel

SCENARIO:

Ann Taylor, head of the Learning Box Division at Trademore Company is having problems with a senior manager, Terry Hall. She has asked one of her staff members to represent the division in a discussion about Terry Hall with a staff member of the Research and Development (R&D) division. Bill Blass, head of R&D is currently in search of an additional Specialist IV and is concerned about the time it will take to fill the position. The Human Resource Development Office (HRD) has heard about the scheduled meeting of the two departments and has proposed that an HRD staff person also attend.

 

MECHANICS:

Preparation for this simulation takes about 20 minutes, which includes enough time to read the material and discuss strategy. The negotiating time can run from 30 to 45 minutes. During the debriefing (approximately 30 minutes), participants should discuss actual and expected outcomes.

 

MAJOR LESSONS:

  • Comparing outcomes when two or more groups play the game allows participants to discuss the importance of strategy in negotiations.
  • The HRD intervenor may or may not choose to play a mediating role, or advocate the interests of the employee. Attempts to mix these two roles however, are likely to fail.
  • During debriefing, the impact of negotiating style and decision making processes should be explored.
  • The attitudes of the participants toward the fact that one of the department heads is a woman can be used to promote discussion on the connection between gender and negotiating styles.

 

TEACHING MATERIALS:

For all parties:

  • General Instructions

 

Role Specific:

Confidential Information for:

  • Representative for Ann Taylor
  • Representative for Bill Blass
  • HRD Staff Person

 

Teacher's Package:

  • All of the above

 

PROCESS THEMES:

Assumptions; Authority; BATNA; Closure; Communication; Confidentiality; Constituents; Cost-benefit analysis; Creativity; Currently perceived choice analysis; Ethics; Fairness; Gilligan, two voices; Information exchange; Interest dovetailing; Interests, quantifying; Joint gains; Managing uncertainty; Meaning of "success"; Mediation, negotiating entry; Message analysis; Misrepresentation; Objective criteria; Options, generating; Preparation; Reality testing; Relationship; Selective perceptions; Separating the people from the problem; Yesable propositions