relationship

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

As one of the “seven elements,” relationship refers to the relationship a negotiator has or wants with other parties. This may include his or her relationship both with those across the table and with anyone else who might affect the negotiation or be affected by the negotiator’s reputation. The conduct and outcome of a negotiation … Read More 

problem-solving approach

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

An approach to negotiation first articulated in the book Getting to YES written by Roger Fisher and William Ury. The problem-solving approach argues that (1) negotiators should work together as colleagues to determine whether an agreement is possible that is better for both of them than no agreement, (2) in doing so they should postpone … Read More 

prisoner’s dilemma

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

A “social dilemma” or “social trap” in game theory between two subjects that presents one subject with the choice to act nobly or selfishly whereby their choice to act one way or the other in conjunction with the level of nobility demonstrated by their counterpart leads to respective payoffs (gains or losses) for both sides. … Read More 

principal-agent tension

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

A common tension in negotiation arising from differences between agents and principles, such as different preferences, incentives or information.  These types of divergences may give rise to problems relating to monitoring, incentives, coordination, and strategy. (Robert H. Mnookin, Scott R. Peppet and Andrew S. Tulumello, Beyond Winning [The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 200], … Read More 

positional bargaining

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

An approach to negotiation that frames negotiation as an adversarial, zero-sum exercise focused on claiming – rather than creating – value. Typically, one party will stake out a high (or low) opening position (demand or offer) and the other a correspondingly low (or high) one. Then a series of (usually reciprocal) concessions are made until … Read More 

position

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

A proposed outcome that represents one way among many that issues might be resolved and interests met. Explicit demands made during a negotiation often represent a party’s position, although the underlying interest may be broader and quite different. (Michael L. Moffitt and Robert C. Bordone, eds., Handbook of Dispute Resolution [Program on Negotiation/Jossey-Bass, 2005], 280) … Read More 

peacebuilding

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

The process of restoring normal relations between people. It requires the reconciliation of differences, apology and forgiveness of past harm, and the establishment of a cooperative relationship between groups, replacing the adversarial or competitive relationship that used to exist. (from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/glossary.htm) … Read More 

options

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

A possible agreement or pieces of a potential agreement upon which negotiators might possibly agree. Options can include substantive terms and conditions, procedures, contingencies, even deliberate omissions or ambiguities – anything parties might agree on that might help to satisfy their respective interests. (Michael L. Moffitt and Robert C. Bordone, eds., Handbook of Dispute Resolution … Read More 

multi-track diplomacy

PON Staff   •  02/17/2009   •  Filed in Glossary

The idea that international exchanges can take many forms beyond official negotiations between diplomats. Examples of multi-track diplomacy include official and unofficial conflict resolution efforts, citizen and scientific exchanges, international business negotiations, international cultural and athletic activities and other international contacts and cooperative efforts. (from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/glossary.htm) … Read More 

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