Papers on International Environmental Negotiation Series

An annual compilation of research papers addressing a range of transboundary environmental negotiation issues

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For the past sixteen years the MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program has published an annual compilation of the best papers on international environmental treat negotiation prepared by advanced graduate students at MIT, Harvard and Tufts: the Papers on International Environmental Negotiation. Many of these papers have stimulated thinking and action on a range of concepts and strategies including expanded roles for non-state actors in environmental treaty negotiations, enhanced information gathering and monitoring roles for treaty secretariats, new approaches to media coverage of environmental treaty negotiations, innovative techniques for generating “compliance without enforcement,” capacity building aimed at enhancing the role of the South in environmental treat negotiations, and better ways of ensuring a balance between science and politics. Some of the papers have documented the need for expanded regional and global cooperation to manage “common pool” resources that have not previously been the subject of treaty negotiations including nitrogen balance, space debris, fresh water, invasive species, genetically modified organisms, high level nuclearƒspace waste, renewable energy and certain endangered species  (like the great apes).

Many of the 125+ papers can be downloaded from the Teaching Negotiation Resource Center (TNRC) website at no charge. Some of the most provocative papers from the first ten volumes have been reprinted in Lawrence Susskind, William Moomaw and Kevin Gallagher, Transboundary Environmental Negotiation (Jossey-Bass, 2001). Proposed changes in the “system” of international environmental treat negotiation are spelled out in Environmental Diplomacy by Lawrence Susskind (Oxford University Press, 1996). These materials can add an extra dimension to environmental studies, international relations, public policy, negotiation, and international law classes. They are accompanied by a series of multi-party negotiation exercises that stimulate the dynamics of transboundary treaty negotiations, especially The Chlorine Game and The Pablo-Burford Game, available from the TNRC.

The Papers on International Environmental Negotiation Series is edited by Lawrence Susskind, Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning at MIT and Co-Director of the Public Disputes Program at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, and William Moomaw, Professor of International Environmental Policy at the Fletcher School of Law and DIplomacy at Tufts University. The papers are the work of advanced graduate students in courses at MIT (11.364 International Environmental Negotiation) and Tufts University (DHP P251 International Environmental Negotiations).


Complete tables of contents for the 15 volumes of Papers on International Environmental Negotiation follow. Download individual papers by clicking on their titles. Recent volumes are also available in print; see links below to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 18: The Next Generation of Environmental Agreements (2011)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 17: On the Road to Copenhagen (2009)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.


Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 16: Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Treaty-Making System (2007)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 15: Ensuring a Sustainable Future (2006)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 14 (2005)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 13 (2004)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 12: Negotiating a Sustainable Future: Innovations in International Environmental Negotiations (2003)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

  • “Redefining the Role of Global Environmental Secretariats,” by Armando Yáñez Sandoval
  • “Corporate-NGO Agreement to Spur Innovation in Vehicle Fuel Economy,” by Sean M. Becker
  • “Evaluation and Improvement of the Multilateral Environmental Reporting System,” by Kellyn Roth
  • “Negotiating Regional Bio-Issues for Conservation: Access and Benefit Sharing of Bioresources in the Himalayan Region of South Asia,” by Ananda M. Bhattarai
  • “Operationalizing the Precautionary Principle: Adoption of an Early Warnings – Early Action System,” by Ami R. Zota
  • “Protecting Traditional Knowledge Through a Multi-Stakeholder Agreement & Network of Indigenous-Run Focal Points,” by Malini S. Goel, Esq.
  • “The Contingent Agreement Approach to the Negotiation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements,” by Peter H. Israelsson
  • “The Regional Treaty Making Approach Toward Environmental Democracy,” by Dong-Young Kim
  • “The Usability of Science Advice to International Environmental Conventions,” by Pia M. Kohler
  • “United Nations Treaty Facilitators: A Proposal to Improve Environmental Treaty Making,” by Alexia Gensberg

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 11: Emerging Issues on the Global Environmental Frontier (2002)

This volume is currently out of print.

  • “Addressing Protection of the Great Apes through International Legislation and Other Methods,” by Paul Rubio
  • “Addressing the Negative Impacts of Mining: A Proposed Global, Site-Specific Agreement for the Mining Industry,” by Daniel Wald
  • “An Integrative Approach to Science Advice for International Environmental Conventions,” by Pia M. Kohler
  • “Incorporating Hazardous Substance Source Reduction Strategies into Multilateral Environmental Agreements,” by Xantha Bruso
  • “Reforming the Global Compact,” by Aki Ohata
  • “Renewable Energy, Sustainable World: How Eliminating the Fossil Fuel Subsidies Will Solve the Problem of Global Warming,” by Faris Khader
  • “The Environment as a Tool for Conflict Resolution: Negotiating an Environmental Solution for Kashmir,” by Cynthia Brady
  • “The Role of Reputation in International Environmental Negotiations,” by Mihaela Papa
  • “When Rivers Run Dry: A Management Approach for the Nile River Basin,” by Anne Angwenyi
  • “Women Without Borders: A Cross-National Perspective on Common Hurdles and Needs for Female Entrepreneurs,” by Krista Salman

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 10: Reforming the International Environmental Treaty-Making System (2001)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

  • “A Declaration on Transnational Relief and a Code of Conduct in Cases of Environmental Emergency: A New Proposal,” by Naoki Maegawa
  • “A Proposed International Framework Convention on Bioinvasive Species,” by Wendy Jastremski
  • “Addressing North-South Power Asymmetry in International Environmental Negotiations,” by Robert Blair
  • “Capacity-Building Strategies in Support of Multilateral Environmental Agreements,” by Heike Mainhardt
  • “Financing Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Adapting the Debt-for-Nature Swap,” by Shannon Lawrence
  • “Foreign Direct Investment and Environmental Protection: Private Initiatives to Complement Public Policies,” by Christelle Burri
  • “Harder Than Physics: Negotiating an International Regime to Limit Transboundary Consequences of Nuclear Waste Disposal,” by Marcus Dubois King
  • “Improving the UNEP Regional Seas Programme: The Case of the Gulf of Aqaba,” by Michael Zwim
  • “Lessons Beyond Borders: Citizen Participation in Trade Regimes,” by Trisha Beth Miller
  • “The Clean Development Mechanism,” by Christo Artusio
  • “The Role of the Media in Addressing International Environmental Problems,” by Anja Kollmus

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 9: An Integrative Approach (1999)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

  • “Civil Society, the Environment, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas,” by Kevin Gallagher
  • “Fisheries on the High Seas: Dividing the Pie,” by Audur Ingolfsdottir
  • “Improving Global Forest Management: Proposals for a Conservation Treaty and for an Enhanced Global Timber Certification System,” by Tetsuya Nagashima
  • “Revolutionizing International Negotiation: Making Information Technology an Integral Part of Environmental Treaty Making,” by Tobin Freid and Imke Wesseloh
  • “The Law and the Profits: Corporate participation in the International Environmental Treaty Making Process,” by Ellen Shaw
  • “The Potential for Environmental Contributions to Peace,” by Maria Fariello
  • “The Viability and Design of International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading,” by Kelly Sims
  • “World’s Apart: A Proposal for Frame Reflective Discourse in International Environmental Negotiations,” by Ian Wadley

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 8: New Directions in International Environmental Negotiation (1999)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

  • “A Framework for Managing International Fisheries,” by Hather Clish
  • “A Proposal for the Joint Development of Hydrocarbon Resources in the South China Sea,” by Jed Baily
  • “A Regional Approach to Military Pollution in Estonia,” by Deborah Bing
  • “Cultivating a Sustainable Agriculture Convention: Sowing Seed for a ‘Deep Green’ Revolution,” by Janet R. Medler
  • “Environmental Impact Assessment: Addressing the Effects of Development at Transboundary and Global Scales,” by David Bryan Glascock
  • “Environmental Side Agreements to Trade Treaties: A New Model of Environmental Policy Making?” by Margaret Laude Kuhlow
  • “Environmentally Responsible Global Governance: How NGOs Can Help,” by Mary Risely
  • “Improving North-South Cooperating in the Emerging Climate Stabilization Regime,” by Jean Acquatella
  • “Managing Global Freshwater Resources: A Proposed Framework Convention Regarding the Use and Management of Freshwater Resources in International River Basins,” by Kathe Mullaly
  • “Promoting North-South NGO Collaboration in Environmental Negotiations: The role of US Foundations,” by Wendy Vanasselt
  • “Reforming the Convention Amendment Process to Facilitate the Strengthening of Commitments,” by Jean Poitras
  • “Toward Legal Standing for Natural Objects: A Proposal for the Creation of the Universal Declaration of the Rights of the Environment and the Rights of Humans to a Healthy Environment,” by Ali Shirvani-Mahdavi
Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 7: Global Environment Negotiating Its Future (1998)
  • “A Review of Joint Implementation: Common Commitments, Different Burdens,” by Hae-Wook (Howard) Cheong
  • “Decentralizing the Global Environmental Facility to Improve Its Performance,” by Ximena Rueda
  • “Defining the ‘Common Heritage of Mankind’,” by Ari Nathan
  • “Eastern European NGOs in Regional Environmental Negotiations: Emerging Information Technologies as a Critical Success Factor,” by Matthias Baxmann
  • “Global Treaty on Renewable Energy,” by Fredric A. Beck
  • “Reducing the Environmental Impact of Freight Transport: A Strategy for Europe,” by Theresa Glasmacher
  • “Science nad Economics in Climate Change and Other International Environmental Negotiations,” by Peter Zapfel
  • “The Global Nitrogen Initiative: An Opportunity for Sustainable Development and Global Change,” by James Perkaus
  • “The Role of Environmental Protection in Sub-Regional Economic Integration: The Case of Hidrovia and Mercosur,” by Luke A. Ney

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 6: Innovations in International Environmental Negotiation (1998)

This volume is available in print. Click here to order.

  • “A Proposal for an Environmental Right-to-Know Convention: Negotiating the Barriers,” by John Harrison
  • “A Trade Co-operative for Global Forestry Management,” by Wei-Jen Leow
  • “All Commons are Local: The Antarctic Treaty System as a Regional Model for Effective Environmental Management,” by Gianfranco Corti
  • “Alternatives for Linking Trade and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies,” by Hans Michael Plut
  • “Bridging the Intellectual Property Debate: Methods for Facilitating Technology Transfers in Environmental Treaties,” by Jamie Henikoff
  • “Conservation Measures for Transboundary Fish Stocks Within Exclusive National Economic Zones,” by Lada Emelianova
  • “Enforcing International Environmental Treaties in Domestic Legal Systems,” by David Bowker and Michael Castellano
  • “Expertise and the Convention to Combat Desertification,” by Marybeth Long
  • “Facilitating Sustainable Development: Rethinking the Role of the UNSCD,” by Jason Corburn
  • “Fine-Tuning the GEF,” by Christine Maurer-Voss
  • “Greening APEC: Institutional Reform for Establishing a ‘Regional Sustainable Development Area,” by Takahashi Hattori
  • “Implementation of Global Environmental Treaties: The Role for Coordinated Corporate Action,” by Jennifer Howard
  • “Renegades and Vigilantes in Multilateral Environmental Regimes: Lessons of the Canada-EU ‘Turbot War’,” by Stepan Wood

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 5 (1995)
  • “A Framework Convention to Prohibit the Export of Banned and Canceled Pesticides from Developed to Developing Countries,” by Tanya J. Nunn
  • “An International Regime for the Transport and Management of Nuclear Waste,” by Renan Poveda
  • “Conserving Biodiversity: A Reformed CITES in an Integrated Approach,” by Melissa Etheridge
  • “Current Options for Facilitating the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies,” by Lorene Flaming
  • “Environmental Monitoring and Remote Sensing,” by Robert Faris
  • “Joint Implementation: Crafting a Viable Strategy for North-South Cooperation,” by Karen Lei-Chen Khor
  • “Negotiating Bolder International Environmental Treaties: Using Parallel Informal Meetings to Improve Outcomes,” by John P. Glyphis
  • “Unilateral Trade Related Environmental Measures and the World Trade Organization,” by Susana Hernandez
  • “Voluntary Codes of Management: New Opportunities for Increased Corporate Accountability,” by Anne M. Gelfand

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 4 (1994)

This volume is currently out of print.

  • “Getting Industry to Work for Environmental Treaty Making,” by Brent E. Omdahl
  • “Linking Human Rights and Environmental Quality,” by Kristi N. Rea
  • “Linking Trade and the Environment In a Post-Uruguay World,” by Katherine M. Howard
  • “Mass Media and the Environment: A Content Analysis,” by Paul A. Barresi
  • “Multinational Corporations: A Global Environmental System,” by Brigitte Smith
  • “Nongovernmental Organizations and the United Nations: Increasing Diversity and Coordination,” by Loren Blackford
  • “Regional Water Resource Management: The Case of the Black Sea,” by Odil Tunali
  • “Science and Scientists in International Environmental Negotiations,” by Laurent Renevier and Mark Henderson
  • “The Role of Private Parties in Compliance Mechanisms: The NAFTA Approach,” by Philip M. Moremen
  • “Transboundary Freshwater Resources: Environmental Negotiations Between Antagonistic States,” by Shira Yoffe

Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 3 (1993)
  • “Computer Networks and UNCED: Did they Really Increase Participation by Nongovernmental Organizations?,” by Nancy Gabriel
  • “Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations at Intergovernmental Negotiations,” by Vanessa M. McMahon
  • “Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Environmental Treaty Making,” by Andrew Winden and Amy E. Matza
  • “GEF: A Global Environmental Opportunity or Green Rhetoric,” by Daniele Guidi, William Conklin and Agueda de Areilza
  • “Integrating Environment and Trade: UNEP as an Observer at GATT,” by Ameen Jan
  • “International Environmental Mandates to MDBs: Bridging the Gap Between Objectives and Performance,” by David Fairman and Tamar Gutner
  • “International Environmental Negotiation: A Strategy for the South,” by Adil Najam
  • “Mediating Environmental Treaty Disputes and the International Court of Justice,” by Theodore A. Johnson
  • “Overcoming Barriers to Successful Technology Sharing: New Roles for GEF,” by Janet L. Sawin with Timothy J. Roorda
  • “The European Community: Regional Economic Integration and Its Implications for International Environmental Negotiations,” by Daniel von Moltke and Ilze Gotelli

International Environmental Treaty Making, Volume 2 (1992)
  • “Improving Compliance Provisions in International Environmental Agreements,” by David Mulenex
  • “Nongovernmental Organizations: Their Past, Present, and Future Role in International Environmental Negotiations,” by Nancy Lindborg
  • “Secretariats and International Environmental Negotiations: Two New Models,” by Rosemary Sanford
  • “Strengthening UNEP to Improve Environmental Treaty Compliance,” by Joseph Mbuna
  • “The Convention on Biological Diversity: Negotiating a Global Regime,” by Martha Rojas and Chris Thomas
  • “The International Joint Commission: A Possible Model for International Resource Management,” by Carol Reardon
  • “The Remote Sensing Regime: Sources of Instability, Options for Reform, and Implications for Environmental Treaty Making,” by Ian Simm
  • “Tropical Deforestation and International Environmental Negotiation: An Illustration of the North-South Confrontation,” by Marcella Obdrzalek
  • “Using Computer Networks to Improve Prenegotiation Discussions and Alliances for Global Environmental Action,” by John W. Wilson

Nine Case Studies in International Environmental Negotiation, Volume 1 (1990)

This volume is currently out of print.

  • “Debt-for-Nature Swaps,” by Kristin Dawkins
  • “Ivory, Elephants–Or Both: Negotiating the Transfer of the African Elephant to an Appendix II Within CITES,” by Thomas E. Arend Jr.
  • “Negotiations Over Auto Emissions Standards in the European Economic Community, 1983 – 1989,” by Mark Corrales and Tony Dreyfus
  • “Progress toward Canadian-U.S. Acid Rain Control,” by William L. Schroeer
  • “The Antarctic Minerals Regime Negotiations,” by David Laws
  • “The Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal,” by Christopher Hilz and Mark Radka
  • “The Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident,” by Sorin Bodea
  • “The International Whaling Commission and Negotiation for a Moratorium on Whaling,” by Bruce Stedman
  • “The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,” by Chris Granda
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If you wish to order multiple copies of a role simulation for use in a course or workshop, simply enter the total number of participants in the box next to “Participant Copies.” There is no need to calculate how many of each role is required; the Teaching Negotiation Resource Center will calculate the appropriate numbers of each role to provide, based on the total number of participants. For example, if you wish to order a 2-party role simulation for use with a class of 30 students, you would enter “30” in the box next to “Participant Copies.” You then would receive 15 copies of one role and 15 copies of the other role, for use with your 30 participants. As another example, if you ordered 30 participant copies of a 6-party role simulation, you would receive 5 copies of each role.

In the event that the number of participant copies you order is not evenly divisible by the number of roles in the simulation, you will receive extra copies of one or more roles. Participants receiving the extra roles may partner with other participants playing the same role, thus negotiating as a team. So, for instance, if you ordered 31 copies of a 2-party role simulation, you would receive 15 copies of the first role and 16 copies of the second role. One of the participants playing the second role would partner with another participant playing that same role, and the two would negotiate as a team.

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